MOTIENT CORPORATION


1.       Offices


1.1.     Registered Office


     The registered office of Motient Corporation (the  "Corporation")  shall be

in Wilmington,  Delaware,  and the  registered  agent in charge thereof shall be

Corporation Trust Company.


1.2.     Other Offices


     The Corporation may also have offices at such other places, both within and

without the State of Delaware,  as the Board of Directors  may from time to time

determine or as may be necessary  or useful in  connection  with the business of

the Corporation.


2.       Meetings of Stockholders


2.1.     Place of Meetings


     All  meetings  of the  stockholders  shall be held at such  place as may be

fixed  from  time to time by the  Board of  Directors,  the  Chairperson  or the



2.2.     Annual Meetings


     The annual meeting of stockholders of the Corporation shall be held on such

date,  time, and at such place within or without the State of Delaware as may be

fixed by the Board of Directors.


2.3.     Special Meetings


     Special meetings of the stockholders,  for any purpose or purposes,  unless

otherwise  prescribed by statute,  may be called only by the Board of Directors,

the  Chairperson  or the  President or by the  stockholders  as set forth in the

Corporation's Certificate of Incorporation (as amended and restated from time to

time, the "Certificate of  Incorporation").  Business  transacted at any special

meeting of  stockholders  shall be limited to the purposes  stated in the notice

relating to such  meeting (or to the purposes for which the meeting is called if

such notice is waived or is not required as provided in the General  Corporation

Law of the State of Delaware (the "Delaware General Corporation Law")).


2.4.     Notice of Meetings


     Notice of any meeting of stockholders,  stating the place, if any, date and

hour of the  meeting,  the  means  of  remote  communication,  if any,  by which

stockholders  and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at

such meeting, and (if it is a special meeting) the purpose or purposes for which

the meeting is called,  shall be given to each  stockholder  entitled to vote at

such  meeting  not less than ten nor more than sixty days before the date of the

meeting  (except to the extent that such notice is waived or is not  required as

provided in the Delaware  General  Corporation Law or these amended and restated

bylaws ("Bylaws")).  Such notice shall be given in accordance with, and shall be

deemed effective as set forth in, Sections 222 and 232 (or any successor section

or sections) of the Delaware General Corporation Law.


2.5.     Waivers of Notice


     Whenever the giving of any notice is required by statute,  the  Certificate

of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a waiver thereof,  in writing and delivered to

the Corporation,  signed by the person or persons entitled to said notice,  or a

waiver thereof by electronic transmission by the person entitled to said notice,

delivered to the Corporation  whether before or after the event as to which such

notice is  required,  shall be deemed  equivalent  to  notice.  Attendance  of a

stockholder  at a  meeting  shall  constitute  a waiver  of  notice  (1) of such

meeting,  except when the stockholder at the beginning of the meeting objects to

holding the meeting or transacting  business at the meeting, and (2) (if it is a

special meeting) of consideration of a particular  matter at the meeting that is

not within the purpose or purposes  described in the meeting notice,  unless the

stockholder objects to considering the matter at the beginning of the meeting.


2.6.     List of Stockholders


     After the record  date for a meeting of  stockholders  has been  fixed,  at

least ten days  before  such  meeting,  the  officer who has charge of the stock

ledger of the Corporation shall make a list of all stockholders entitled to vote

at the meeting,  arranged in alphabetical  order and showing the address of each

stockholder  (but not the electronic  mail address or other  electronic  contact

information,  unless the Board of Directors so directs) and the number of shares

registered  in the  name of each  stockholder.  Such  list  shall be open to the

examination  of any  stockholder  for any  purpose  germane to the meeting for a

period of at least ten days prior to the meeting: (1) on a reasonably accessible

electronic  network,  provided that the  information  required to gain access to

such list is provided  with the notice of the  meeting,  or (2) during  ordinary

business hours, at the principal  place of business of the  Corporation.  If the

meeting is to be held at a place, then such list shall also, for the duration of

the meeting, be produced and kept open to the examination of any stockholder who

is present at the time and place of the  meeting.  If the  meeting is to be held

solely by means of remote  communication,  then such list  shall also be open to

the  examination  of any  stockholder  during the whole  time of the  meeting on

reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access

such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.


2.7.     Business at Special Meetings


     Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited

to the purposes  stated in the notice  (except to the extent that such notice is

waived or is not required as provided in the Delaware General Corporation Law or

these Bylaws).


2.8.     Quorum at Meetings


     Stockholders  may take  action on a matter  at a  meeting  only if a quorum

exists with respect to that matter.  Except as otherwise  provided by statute or

by the Certificate of  Incorporation,  a quorum shall exist if there are present

in person or  represented  by proxy the  holders  of a  majority  of the  shares

entitled to vote at the meeting.  Where a separate vote by a class or classes is

required, a majority of the outstanding shares of such class or classes, present

in person or represented by proxy,  shall  constitute a quorum  entitled to take

action with respect to that vote on that matter. Once a share is represented for

any purpose at a meeting (other than solely to object (1) to holding the meeting

or  transacting  business at the meeting or (2) (if it is a special  meeting) to

consideration  of a  particular  matter at the  meeting  that is not  within the

purpose or purposes  described in the meeting notice),  it is deemed present for

quorum purposes for the remainder of the meeting and for any adjournment of that

meeting  unless a new record date is or must be set for the  adjourned  meeting.

The holders of a majority of the voting shares represented at a meeting, whether

or not a quorum is present, may adjourn such meeting from time to time.


2.9.     Voting and Proxies


     Each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote on each matter, in person or

by proxy,  for each  share of the  Corporation's  capital  stock that has voting

power  and that is held by such  stockholder.  No proxy  shall be voted or acted

upon after three  years from its date,  unless the proxy  provides  for a longer

period.  A duly  executed  appointment  of  proxy  shall be  irrevocable  if the

appointment  form states that it is irrevocable  and if, and only as long as, it

is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power.


2.10.    Required Vote


     When a quorum is present at any meeting of stockholders,  all matters shall

be determined,  adopted and approved by the affirmative  vote (which need not be

by ballot)  of the  holders  of a  majority  of the shares  present in person or

represented  by proxy at the  meeting and  entitled to vote with  respect to the

matter,  unless the proposed action is one upon which,  by express  provision of

statutes or of the Certificate of  Incorporation,  a different vote is specified

and required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control with

respect to that vote on that matter. Where a separate vote by a class or classes

is required,  the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the shares of

such class or classes  present in person or  represented by proxy at the meeting

shall be the act of such class.  Notwithstanding the foregoing,  directors shall

be  elected  by a  plurality  of the votes of the  shares  present  in person or

represented  by proxy at the  meeting and  entitled  to vote on the  election of

directors.  If  authorized  by the  Board  of  Directors,  and  subject  to such

guidelines as the Board of Directors may adopt,  stockholders  and  proxyholders

not  physically  present at a meeting of  stockholders  may,  by means of remote

communication, participate in a meeting of stockholders and be deemed present in

person and vote at such  meeting  whether  such  meeting is held at a designated

place  or  solely  by  means  of  remote  communication,  provided  that (1) the

Corporation  implements  reasonable  measures to verify that each person  deemed

present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is

a stockholder or proxyholder, (2) the Corporation implements reasonable measures

to provide  such  stockholders  and  proxyholders  a reasonable  opportunity  to

participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders,

including  an  opportunity  to read  or  hear  the  proceedings  of the  meeting

substantially concurrently with such proceedings,  and (3) if any stockholder or

proxyholder  votes or takes  other  action  at the  meeting  by means of  remote

communication,  a record  of such  vote or other  action  is  maintained  by the



2.11.    Inspectors


     Prior  to  any  meeting  of  stockholders,  the  Board  of  Directors,  the

Chairperson or the President shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at such

meeting and make a written  report thereof and may designate one or more persons

as  alternate  inspectors  to  replace  any  inspector  who fails to act.  If no

inspector or alternate is able to act at the meeting of stockholders, the person

presiding  at the meeting  shall  appoint one or more  inspectors  to act at the

meeting.  Each  inspector,  before  entering  upon the  discharge  of his or her

duties,  shall  take  and sign an oath  faithfully  to  execute  the  duties  of

inspector  with  strict  impartiality  and  according  to the best of his or her

ability. The inspectors shall ascertain the number of shares outstanding and the

voting power of each,  determine the shares  represented  at the meeting and the

validity of proxies and  ballots,  count all votes and  ballots,  determine  and

retain for a reasonable  period a record of the  disposition  of any  challenges

made to any  determination by the inspectors and certify their  determination of

the number of shares represented at the meeting and their count of all votes and

ballots.  The  inspectors  may appoint or retain other persons to assist them in

the performance of their duties. The date and time of the opening and closing of

the polls for each  matter  upon which the  stockholders  will vote at a meeting

shall be announced at the meeting. No ballot,  proxy or vote, nor any revocation

thereof or change thereto, shall be accepted by the inspectors after the closing

of the polls.  In determining  the validity and counting of proxies and ballots,

the inspectors shall be limited to an examination of the proxies,  any envelopes

submitted  therewith,  any  information  provided by a stockholder who submits a

proxy by telegram,  cablegram or other electronic transmission from which it can

be determined that the proxy was authorized by the stockholder,  ballots and the

regular books and records of the  Corporation,  and they may also consider other

reliable information for the limited purposes of reconciling proxies and ballots

submitted by or on behalf of banks,  brokers,  their nominees or similar persons

that represent more votes than the holder of a proxy is authorized by the record

owner  to cast or more  votes  than the  stockholder  holds  of  record.  If the

inspectors consider other reliable information for such purpose,  they shall, at

the  time  they  make  their  certification,  specify  the  precise  information

considered by them,  including the person or persons from whom they obtained the

information,  when  the  information  was  obtained,  the  means  by  which  the

information  was  obtained  and the basis for the  inspectors'  belief that such

information is accurate and reliable.


3.       Directors


3.1.     Powers


     The  business and affairs of the  Corporation  shall be managed by or under

the direction of the Board of  Directors,  which may exercise all such powers of

the  Corporation  and do  all  such  lawful  acts  and  things,  subject  to any

limitation set forth in the Certificate of  Incorporation or as otherwise may be

provided in the Delaware General Corporation Law.


3.2.     Number and Election


     The number of directors which shall constitute the whole Board of Directors

shall be seven (7) directors. Thereafter, the number of directors may be changed

from time to time by a resolution  adopted by a majority of the  directors  then

serving on the Board of Directors.


     Directors shall be elected  annually at the annual meeting of stockholders.

Vacancies  on the Board of  Directors  shall be filled  in  accordance  with the

Certificate of Incorporation.



3.3.     Meetings


3.3.1.   Regular Meetings


     Regular  meetings of the Board of Directors  may be held without  notice at

such  time and at such  place as shall  from time to time be  determined  by the

Board of Directors.


3.3.2.   Special Meetings


     Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Chairperson or President

on two days' notice to each director, either personally or by telephone, express

delivery service (so that the scheduled  delivery date of the notice is at least

one day in advance of the meeting), telegram, facsimile transmission, electronic

mail (effective when directed to an electronic mail address of the director), or

other  electronic  transmission,  as defined in Section 232(c) (or any successor

section) of the Delaware General Corporation Law (effective when directed to the

director),  and on five days'  notice by mail  (effective  upon  deposit of such

notice in the mail).


3.3.3.   Presence at Meetings


     Members of the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting of the Board

of Directors by any communication by means of which all participating  directors

can simultaneously hear each other during the meeting. A director  participating

in a meeting by this means is deemed to be present in person at the meeting.


3.3.4.   Action Without Meeting


     Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of

Directors  may be taken  without a meeting if the action is taken by all members

of the Board of Directors.  The action must be evidenced by one or more consents

in writing or by electronic  transmission describing the action taken, signed by

each  director,  and  delivered to the  Corporation  for inclusion in the minute



3.3.5.   Waiver of Notice of Meeting


     A director may waive any notice  required by statute,  the  Certificate  of

Incorporation  or these  Bylaws  before or after the date and time (1) stated in

the notice or (2) of the meeting.  Except as set forth below, the waiver must be

in writing,  signed by the director entitled to the notice, and delivered to the

Corporation for inclusion in the minute book.  Notwithstanding the foregoing,  a

director's  attendance  at or  participation  in a meeting  waives any  required

notice to the director of the meeting  unless the  director at the  beginning of

the  meeting  objects to holding  the  meeting or  transacting  business  at the

meeting  and does not  thereafter  vote for or  assent  to  action  taken at the



3.4.     Quorum and Vote at Meetings


     At all  meetings  of the  Board  of  Directors,  a quorum  of the  Board of

Directors  consists of a majority of the total number of directors  constituting

the whole Board of  Directors  as  established  pursuant to Section 3.2 of these

Bylaws.  The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which

there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of  Directors,  except as may be

otherwise   specifically   provided  by  statute  or  by  the   Certificate   of

Incorporation or by these Bylaws.


3.5.     Committees of Directors


     The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee

to consist of one or more directors. The Board of Directors may designate one or

more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent

or  disqualified  member  at any  meeting  of the  committee.  If a member  of a

committee is absent from any meeting,  or disqualified from voting thereat,  the

remaining member or members present and not disqualified from voting, whether or

not such member or members constitute a quorum,  may, by unanimous vote, appoint

another  member of the Board of  Directors to act at the meeting in the place of

such absent or disqualified  member. Any such committee,  to the extent provided

in the resolution of the Board of Directors, shall have and may exercise all the

powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business

and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to

be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such  committee  shall have

the power or authority in reference to approving or adopting, or recommending to

the  stockholders,  any  action or matter  expressly  required  by the  Delaware

General  Corporation  Law  to be  submitted  to  stockholders  for  approval  or

adopting,  amending or repealing  any Bylaw of the  Corporation;  and unless the

resolution  designating  the  committee,  these  Bylaws  or the  Certificate  of

Incorporation  expressly so provide,  no such committee  shall have the power or

authority to declare a dividend,  to authorize the issuance of stock or to adopt

a certificate  of ownership  and merger  pursuant to Section 253 of the Delaware

General  Corporation  Law. Such committee or committees  shall have such name or

names as may be determined from time to time by resolution  adopted by the Board

of  Directors.  Each  committee  shall keep regular  minutes of its meetings and

report  the same to the Board of  Directors,  when  required.  Unless  otherwise

specified in the Board of Directors  resolution  appointing the  Committee,  all

provisions of the Delaware General  Corporation Law and these Bylaws relating to

meetings,  action without  meetings,  notice (and waiver thereof) and quorum and

voting requirements of the Board of Directors apply, as well, to such committees

and their members.


3.6.     Compensation of Directors


     The Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the  compensation of

directors.  No such  payment  shall  preclude  any  director  from  serving  the

Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.


4.       Officers


4.1.     Positions


     The  officers  of  the  Corporation  shall  be  a  Chairperson,  President,

Secretary and  Treasurer,  and such other officers as the Board of Directors (or

an officer  authorized by the Board of Directors) from time to time may appoint,

including one or more Vice  Chairpersons,  Vice  Presidents  (any of whom may be

designated   Senior  Vice  President),   Assistant   Secretaries  and  Assistant

Treasurers. Each such officer shall exercise such powers and perform such duties

as shall be set forth  below and such  other  powers  and duties as from time to

time may be specified by the Board of Directors or by any officer(s)  authorized

by the Board of Directors to prescribe  the duties of such other  officers.  Any

number  of  offices  may be held by the same  person.  Each of the  Chairperson,

President,  Treasurer  and/or any Vice President may execute  bonds,  mortgages,

contracts and other instruments and documents under the seal of the Corporation,

if required,  except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise executed

and except where the execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board

of Directors to some other officer or agent of the Corporation.


4.2.     Chairperson


     The  Chairperson  shall  (when  present  and unless  otherwise  provided by

resolution of the Board of Directors or delegated by the Chairperson) preside at

all meetings of the Board of Directors and  stockholders,  and shall ensure that

all  orders and  resolutions  of the Board of  Directors  and  stockholders  are

carried into effect.


4.3.     President


     The President shall have full  responsibility  and authority for management

of the day-to-day operations of the Corporation, subject to the authority of the

Board of Directors and Chairperson.


4.4.     Vice President


     In  the  absence  of  the  President  or in the  event  of the  President's

inability or refusal to act, the Vice  President  (or in the event there be more

than one Vice President, the Vice Presidents in the order designated,  or in the

absence of any  designation,  then in the order of their election) shall perform

the duties of the  President,  and when so acting  shall have all the powers of,

and be subject to all the restrictions upon, the President.  Unless the order is

otherwise  designated,  a Senior Vice  President  shall come in order before any

Vice President.


4.5.     Secretary


     The  Secretary  shall have  responsibility  for  preparation  of minutes of

meetings  of  the  Board  of  Directors   and  of  the   stockholders   and  for

authenticating records of the Corporation. The Secretary shall give, or cause to

be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the

Board of Directors.  The Secretary or an Assistant Secretary may also attest all

instruments signed by any other officer of the Corporation.


4.6.     Assistant Secretary


     The  Assistant  Secretary,  or if there be more  than  one,  the  Assistant

Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there shall

have been no such determination, then in the order of their election), shall, in

the absence of the  Secretary  or in the event of the  Secretary's  inability or

refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary.


4.7.     Treasurer


     The Treasurer shall be the chief  financial  officer of the Corporation and

shall have  responsibility for the custody of the corporate funds and securities

and  shall  see  to  it  that  full  and  accurate   accounts  of  receipts  and

disbursements  are kept in books  belonging to the  Corporation.  The  Treasurer

shall render to the Chairperson,  the President and the Board of Directors, upon

request, an account of all financial transactions and of the financial condition

of the Corporation.


4.8.     Assistant Treasurer


     The Assistant Treasurer,  or if there shall be more than one, the Assistant

Treasurers in the order  determined by the Board of Directors (or if there shall

have been no such determination, then in the order of their election), shall, in

the absence of the  Treasurer  or in the event of the  Treasurer's  inability or

refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer.


4.9.     Term of Office


     The officers of the  Corporation  shall hold office until their  successors

are duly  chosen  and duly  qualified  or until  their  earlier  resignation  or

removal.  Any  officer  may  resign  at any  time  upon  written  notice  to the

Corporation.  Any officer  elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be

removed  at any  time,  with or  without  cause,  by the  affirmative  vote of a

majority of the Board of Directors.


4.10.    Compensation


     The compensation of officers of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board

of  Directors  or by any  officer(s)  authorized  by the Board of  Directors  to

prescribe the compensation of such other officers.


4.11.    Fidelity Bonds


     The  Corporation  may secure the  fidelity of any or all of its officers or

agents by bond or otherwise.


5.       Capital Stock


5.1.     Certificates of Stock; Uncertificated Shares


     The  shares  of the  Corporation  shall  be  represented  by  certificates,

provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution  that some or all

of any or all  classes or series of the  Corporation's  stock be  uncertificated

shares.  Any  such  resolution  shall  not  apply  to  shares  represented  by a

certificate   until  such   certificate  is  surrendered  to  the   Corporation.

Notwithstanding  the  adoption of such a resolution  by the Board of  Directors,

every holder of stock represented by certificates, and upon request every holder

of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a certificate  (representing

the number of shares  registered in certificate  form) signed in the name of the

Corporation  by the  Chairperson,  President or any Vice  President,  and by the

Treasurer,  Secretary or any Assistant  Treasurer or Assistant  Secretary of the

Corporation.  Any or all the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile.  In

case any  officer,  transfer  agent or  registrar  whose  signature or facsimile

signature  appears  on a  certificate  shall  have  ceased  to be such  officer,

transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued,  it may be issued

by the  Corporation  with the same effect as if such  person were such  officer,

transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.


5.2.     Lost Certificates


     The Board of  Directors,  Chairperson,  President or Secretary may direct a

new  certificate of stock to be issued in place of any  certificate  theretofore

issued by the  Corporation  and alleged to have been lost,  stolen or destroyed,

upon the making of an  affidavit  of that fact by the person  claiming  that the

certificate of stock has been lost,  stolen or destroyed.  When authorizing such

issuance of a new  certificate,  the Board of Directors or any such officer may,

as a condition  precedent  to the  issuance  thereof,  require the owner of such

lost,  stolen or destroyed  certificate or  certificates,  or such owner's legal

representative,  to advertise  the same in such manner as the Board of Directors

or  such  officer  shall  require  and/or  to  give  the  Corporation  a bond or

indemnity, in such sum or on such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors

or such  officer may  direct,  as  indemnity  against any claim that may be made

against the Corporation on account of the certificate alleged to have been lost,

stolen or  destroyed or on account of the  issuance of such new  certificate  or

uncertificated shares.


5.3.     Record Date


5.3.1.   Actions by Stockholders


     In order that the  Corporation may determine the  stockholders  entitled to

notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders,  the Board of Directors may

fix a record  date,  which record date shall not precede the date upon which the

resolution  fixing the record  date is  adopted by the Board of  Directors,  and

which  record  date  shall  not be more than  sixty  days nor less than ten days

before  the date of such  meeting.  If no  record  date is fixed by the Board of

Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or

to vote at a meeting of  stockholders  shall be the close of business on the day

next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the

close of  business  on the day next  preceding  the day on which the  meeting is

held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote

at a meeting of  stockholders  shall apply to any  adjournment  of the  meeting,

unless the Board of Directors fixes a new record date for the adjourned meeting.


5.3.2.   Payments


     In order that the  Corporation may determine the  stockholders  entitled to

receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights

or the  stockholders  entitled to exercise  any rights in respect of any change,

conversion or exchange of stock,  or for the purpose of any other lawful action,

the Board of  Directors  may fix a record  date,  which  record  date  shall not

precede  the date upon which the  resolution  fixing the record date is adopted,

and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no

record date is fixed, the record date for determining  stockholders for any such

purpose  shall be at the  close of  business  on the day on which  the  Board of

Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.


5.4.     Stockholders of Record


     The  Corporation  shall be entitled to recognize the  exclusive  right of a

person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive  dividends,  to

receive notifications,  to vote as such owner and to exercise all the rights and

powers  of an  owner.  The  Corporation  shall  not be  bound to  recognize  any

equitable  or other  claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of

any other person,  whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof,

except as otherwise may be provided by the Delaware General Corporation Law.




6.1.     Authorization of Indemnification


     Each person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to or

is involved in any threatened,  pending or completed action, suit or proceeding,

whether civil,  criminal,  administrative  or investigative and whether by or in

the right of the  Corporation  or otherwise (a  "proceeding"),  by reason of the

fact that he or she, or a person of whom he or she is the legal  representative,

is or was a director or officer of the  Corporation  or is or was serving at the

request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, partner (limited or

general) or agent of another  corporation  or of a  partnership,  joint venture,

limited liability  company,  trust or other  enterprise,  including service with

respect to an  employee  benefit  plan,  shall be (and shall be deemed to have a

contractual  right to be) indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation  (and

any successor to the  Corporation  by merger or otherwise) to the fullest extent

authorized  by, and subject to the  conditions  and (except as provided  herein)

procedures set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law, as the same exists

or may hereafter be amended (but any such amendment shall not be deemed to limit

or prohibit the rights of  indemnification  hereunder for past acts or omissions

of  any  such  person  insofar  as  such  amendment   limits  or  prohibits  the

indemnification  rights that said law permitted the Corporation to provide prior

to such  amendment),  against all expenses,  liabilities  and losses  (including

attorneys' fees, judgments,  fines, ERISA taxes or penalties and amounts paid or

to be paid in  settlement)  reasonably  incurred  or  suffered by such person in

connection  therewith;  provided,  however, that the Corporation shall indemnify

any such person seeking indemnification in connection with a proceeding (or part

thereof)  initiated  by such  person  (except  for a suit or action  pursuant to

Section 6.2 hereof) only if such  proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by

the  Board of  Directors.  Persons  who are not  directors  or  officers  of the

Corporation  and are not so serving at the  request  of the  Corporation  may be

similarly indemnified in respect of such service to the extent authorized at any

time by the Board of Directors.  The  indemnification  conferred in this Section

6.1  also  shall  include  the  right  to be paid by the  Corporation  (and  any

successor) the expenses  (including  attorneys' fees) incurred in the defense of

or other involvement in any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition;

provided,  however,  that, if and to the extent the Delaware General Corporation

Law requires,  the payment of such expenses (including attorneys' fees) incurred

by a director  or officer in advance of the final  disposition  of a  proceeding

shall be made only upon delivery to the  Corporation  of an undertaking by or on

behalf of such director or officer to repay all amounts so paid in advance if it

shall  ultimately be determined that such director or officer is not entitled to

be indemnified under this Section 6.1 or otherwise;  and provided further,  that

such expenses  incurred by other  employees and agents may be so paid in advance

upon  such  terms  and  conditions,  if any,  as the  Board of  Directors  deems



6.2.     Right of Claimant to Bring Action Against the Corporation


     If a claim under Section 6.1 is not paid in full by the Corporation  within

60 days after a written claim has been received by the Corporation, the claimant

may at any time  thereafter  bring an action against the  Corporation to recover

the  unpaid  amount of the claim and,  if  successful  in whole or in part,  the

claimant  shall be  entitled  to be paid also the  expense of  prosecuting  such

action.  It shall be a defense to any such action (other than an action  brought

to enforce a claim for expenses  incurred in connection  with any  proceeding in

advance  of its final  disposition  where the  required  undertaking,  if any is

required,  has been tendered to the  Corporation)  that the claimant has not met

the  standards of conduct that make it  permissible  under the Delaware  General

Corporation  Law for the  Corporation  to indemnify  the claimant for the amount

claimed or is otherwise not entitled to indemnification under Section 6.1.


6.3.     Non-exclusivity


     The rights to  indemnification  and advance payment of expenses provided by

Section 6.1 hereof  shall not be deemed  exclusive  of any other rights to which

those seeking  indemnification  and advance  payment of expenses may be entitled

under any Bylaw,  agreement,  vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or

otherwise, both as to action in his or her official capacity and as to action in

another capacity while holding such office.


6.4.     Survival of Indemnification


     The rights to indemnification  and advance payment of expenses provided by,

or granted pursuant to, Section 6.1 hereof shall, unless otherwise provided when

authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director,

officer,  employee,  partner  or agent and  shall  inure to the  benefit  of the

personal representatives, heirs, executors and administrators of such person.


6.5.     Insurance


     The  Corporation  shall have power to purchase  and  maintain  insurance on

behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the

Corporation,  or is or was  serving  at the  request  of  the  Corporation  as a

director,  officer,  employee,  partner (limited or general) or agent of another

corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company, trust

or other  enterprise,  against any  liability  asserted  against  such person or

incurred by such person in any such  capacity,  or arising out of such  person's

status as such, and related expenses,  whether or not the Corporation would have

the power to indemnify such person  against such liability  under the provisions

of the Delaware General Corporation Law.


7.       General Provisions


7.1.     Inspection of Books and Records


     Any  stockholder,  in person or by attorney  or other  agent,  shall,  upon

written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the right during the

usual hours for  business to inspect  for any proper  purpose the  Corporation's

stock ledger, a list of its stockholders,  and its other books and records,  and

to make  copies or extracts  therefrom.  A proper  purpose  shall mean a purpose

reasonably related to such person's interest as a stockholder. In every instance

where  an  attorney  or  other  agent  is the  person  who  seeks  the  right to

inspection, the demand under oath shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or

such other  writing  that  authorizes  the  attorney or other agent to so act on

behalf of the  stockholder.  The  demand  under oath  shall be  directed  to the

Corporation at its registered office or at its principal place of business.


7.2.     Dividends


     The Board of Directors may declare  dividends upon the capital stock of the

Corporation,  subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation  and

the Delaware General Corporation Law.


7.3.     Reserves


     The  directors of the  Corporation  may set apart,  out of the funds of the

Corporation  available  for  dividends,  a reserve  or  reserves  for any proper

purpose and may abolish any such reserve.


7.4.     Execution of Instruments


     All checks,  drafts or other orders for the payment of money and promissory

notes of the  Corporation  shall be signed by such  officer or  officers or such

other  person  or  persons  as the  Board of  Directors  may  from  time to time



7.5.     Fiscal Year


     The fiscal  year of the  Corporation  shall be fixed by  resolution  of the

Board of Directors.


7.6.     Seal


     The  corporate  seal shall be in such form as the Board of Directors  shall

approve.  The  seal  may be used by  causing  it or a  facsimile  thereof  to be

impressed or affixed or otherwise reproduced.


     The foregoing Bylaws were adopted by the Board of Directors of the

Corporation as of May 1, 2002.




                                        /s/Walter V. Purnell, Jr.


                                        Walter V. Purnell, Jr.

                                        President and Chief Executive Officer