Adopted: February 11, 2003
Reaffirmed: November 2, 2005


The Audit Committee assists the Board in monitoring (1) management’s process for ensuring the integrity of the financial statements of the Company, (2) the independent auditor’s qualifications and independence, (3) the performance of the Company’s internal audit function and independent auditors, and (4) management’s process for ensuring the compliance by the Company with legal and regulatory requirements.

The Audit Committee prepares the report required by the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) to be included in the Company’s annual proxy statement.

Committee Membership

The Audit Committee shall consist of no fewer than three (3) members. The Board shall appoint the members of the Audit Committee upon recommendation by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. The Board may remove any Committee member from service for any reason in its discretion, including but not limited to a finding that the director is no longer independent. The members of the Audit Committee shall meet the independence and experience requirements of NASDAQ, the
United States securities laws, and the rules and regulations of the Commission. At least one (1) member of the Audit Committee shall be a financial expert as defined by the Commission and NASDAQ. Each member must be able to read and understand financial statements, including the Company’s balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement at the time of their appointment.


The Audit Committee shall meet as often as it determines, but not less frequently than quarterly. The Audit Committee shall meet periodically with management, the internal auditors and the independent auditor in separate executive sessions. The Audit Committee may request any officer or employee of the Company, or the Company’s outside counsel or independent auditor, to attend a meeting of the Committee or to meet with any members of, or consultants to, the Committee.

Committee Authority and Responsibilities

The Audit Committee shall have the sole authority to appoint or replace the independent auditor (subject, if applicable, to shareholder ratification). The Audit Committee shall be directly responsible for the compensation and oversight of the work of the independent auditor (including resolution of disagreements between management and the independent auditor regarding financial reporting) for the purpose of preparing or issuing an audit report or related work. The independent auditor shall report directly to the Audit Committee.

The Audit Committee shall pre-approve all auditing services and permitted non-audit services (including the fees and terms thereof) to be performed for the Company by its independent auditor, subject to the de minimus exceptions for non-audit services described in Section 10A(i)(1)(B) of the Exchange Act, which are approved by the Audit Committee prior to the completion of the audit. The Audit Committee may form and delegate authority to subcommittees consisting of one or more members when appropriate, including the authority to grant pre-approvals of audit and permitted non-audit services, provided that decisions of such subcommittee to grant pre-approvals shall be presented to the full Audit Committee at its next scheduled meeting.

The Audit Committee shall have the authority, to the extent it deems necessary or appropriate, to retain independent legal, accounting or other advisors. The Company shall provide for appropriate funding, as determined by the Audit Committee, for payment of compensation to the independent auditor for the purpose of rendering or issuing an audit report and to any advisors employed by the Audit Committee.

The Audit Committee shall make regular reports to the Board. The Audit Committee shall review and reassess the adequacy of this Charter annually and recommend any proposed changes to the Board for approval. The Audit Committee shall annually review the Audit Committee’s own performance.

The Audit Committee, to the extent it deems necessary or appropriate, shall:

1. Financial Statement and Disclosure Matters

A. Review and discuss with management and the independent auditor the annual audited financial statements, including disclosures made in management’s discussion and analysis, and recommend to the Board whether the audited financial statements should be included in the Company’s Form 10-K.

B. Review and discuss with management and the independent auditor the Company’s quarterly financial statements prior to the filing of its Form 10-Q, including the results of the independent auditor’s review of the quarterly financial statements.

C. Quarterly and annually, discuss with management and the independent auditor significant financial reporting issues and judgments made in connection with the preparation of the Company’s financial statements, including any significant changes in the Company’s selection or application of accounting principles, any major issues as to the adequacy of the Company’s internal controls and any special steps adopted in light of material control deficiencies.

D. Review and discuss the annual report from the independent auditor regarding:

(a) All critical accounting policies and practices to be used;

(b) All alternative treatments of financial information within generally accepted accounting principles that have been discussed with management, ramifications of the use of such alternative disclosures and treatments, and the treatment preferred by the independent auditor; and

(c) Other material written communications between the independent auditor and management, such as any management letter or schedule of unadjusted differences.

E. Discuss with management the Company’s earnings press releases, including the use of “pro forma” or “adjusted” non-GAAP information, as well as financial information and earnings guidance provided to analysts and rating agencies. Such discussion may be done generally (consisting of discussing the types of information to be disclosed and the types of presentations to be made).

F. Discuss with management and the independent auditor the effect of regulatory and accounting initiatives, as well as off-balance sheet structures, on the Company’s financial statements.

G. Discuss with management the Company’s major financial risk exposures and the steps management has taken to monitor and control such exposures, including the Company’s risk assessment and risk management policies.

H. Discuss with the independent auditor the matters required to be discussed by Statement on Auditing Standards No. 90 relating to the conduct of the audit, including any difficulties encountered in the course of the audit work, any restrictions on the scope of activities or access to requested information, and any significant disagreements with management.

I. Review disclosures made to the Audit Committee by the Company’s CEO and CFO, during their certification process for the Form 10-K and Form 10-Q, about any significant deficiencies in the design or operation of internal controls for financial reporting or material weaknesses therein, and any fraud involving management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls.

J. At least annually, review with management, legal counsel, and the director of internal audit the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures.

K. Review and approve the disclosures in each Form 10-K regarding management’s annual internal control report and the related attestation report prepared by the Company’s independent auditor, once the applicable rules become effective.

L. Establish procedures for resolving disagreements between management and the independent auditor regarding financial reporting.

2. Oversight of the Company’s Relationship with the Independent Auditor

A. Annually, review and evaluate the lead partner of the independent auditor team.

B. Obtain and review a report from the independent auditor at least annually regarding (a) the independent auditor’s internal quality-control procedures, (b) any material issues raised by the most recent internal quality-control review, or peer review, of the firm, or by any inquiry or investigation by governmental or professional authorities within the preceding five (5) years respecting one or more independent audits carried out by the firm, (c) any steps taken to deal with any such issues, and (d) all relationships between the independent auditor and the Company, and (e) the independent auditor’s registration with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (once the Board begins accepting registrations). Review the annual written disclosure regarding the independent auditor’s independence required by Independence Standards Board Standard No. 1. Evaluate the qualifications, performance and independence of the independent auditor, including considering whether the auditor’s quality controls are adequate and the provision of permitted non-audit services is compatible with maintaining the auditor’s independence, and taking into account the opinions of management and internal auditors. The Audit Committee shall present its conclusions with respect to the independent auditor to the Board.

C. Recommend to the Board policies for the Company’s hiring of employees or former employees of the independent auditor who participated in any capacity in the audit of the Company.

D. Require that the independent auditor review and discuss with the audit committee any matters with which they consulted their national office.

E. Meet with the independent auditor in a timely manner to discuss the planning and staffing of the audit.

F. Confirm that the Company’s CEO, CFO, CAO, Controller or equivalent officer, if formerly a partner of or employed by the independent auditor, did not participate in any capacity in the audit of the Company during the one year preceding the date of the initiation of the current audit.

3. Oversight of the Company’s Internal Audit Function

A. Review the appointment and replacement of the senior internal auditing executive, as needed.

B. Quarterly, review the significant reports to management prepared by the internal auditing department and management’s responses.

C. Annually, discuss with the independent auditor and management the internal audit department responsibilities, budget and staffing and any recommended changes in the planned scope of the internal audit.

4. Compliance Oversight Responsibilities

A. Obtain from the independent auditor assurance that Section 10A(b) of the Exchange Act has not been implicated.

B. Obtain reports from management that the Company and its subsidiary/foreign affiliated entities are in conformity with applicable legal requirements and the Company’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. Review reports and disclosures of insider and affiliated party transactions. Advise the Board with respect to the Company’s policies and procedures regarding compliance with applicable laws and regulations and with the Company’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.

C. Establish written procedures for the receipt, retention and treatment of complaints received by the Company regarding accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters, and the confidential, anonymous submission by employees of concerns regarding questionable accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters, no later than as required by law or NASDAQ.

D. Discuss with management and the independent auditor any correspondence with regulators or governmental agencies and any published reports which raise material issues regarding the Company’s financial statements or accounting policies.

E. Discuss with the Company’s legal counsel legal matters that may have a material impact on the financial statements or the Company’s compliance policies.

F. Review and approve all “related party transactions” of the type that would be required to be disclosed in the Company’s annual proxy statement, regardless of size, and as may otherwise be required by NASDAQ.

G. Prepare the Audit Committee Report required by the Commission to be included in the Company’s annual proxy statement and review the disclosure in the proxy statement regarding the independence of the Audit Committee members and the presence of a financial expert on the Audit Committee.

Limitation of Audit Committee’s Role

While the Audit Committee has the responsibilities and powers set forth in this Charter, it is not the duty of the Audit Committee to plan or conduct audits or to determine that the Company’s financial statements and disclosures are complete and accurate and are in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and applicable rules and regulations. These are the responsibilities of management and the independent auditor. Management is also responsible for maintaining (i) an appropriate system of internal controls and procedures for financial reporting and (ii) an appropriate system of disclosure controls and procedures, in compliance with applicable law.